## PV Function

The PV function in Google Sheets calculates the present value of an investment or loan based on a constant interest rate and periodic payments.

### Syntax

```
PV(rate, number_of_periods, payment_amount, [future_value], [end_or_beginning])
```

`rate`

: The interest rate for each period.`number_of_periods`

: The total number of payment periods.`payment_amount`

: The amount of each payment.`future_value`

: (Optional) The cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. Default is 0.`end_or_beginning`

: (Optional) Indicates when payments are due. 0 for end of the period, 1 for beginning.

### Examples

**Basic Present Value Calculation**

Calculate the present value of a series of $1000 payments over 10 years:

```
=PV(0.05, 10, -1000)
```

This will output -7721.73.

### Notes

- Negative numbers indicate cash outflows.
- Useful for evaluating investments or loans.